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A year after the construction of the house, I wanted to attach a canopy to its front wall. So that it is functional, but at the same time very simple in design. What was required of a canopy? The most important thing is that at the expense of him I wanted to get an additional place for a summer vacation, protected from the sun's rays and rain. For gatherings in the air, so that you can dine in the courtyard and relax on a sun lounger. According to the project, the canopy was supposed to be a kind of replacement for an open gazebo, but with a simpler design. So that during construction a minimum of material resources and physical efforts were spent.
In 2 weeks, the plan was implemented. Based on the acquired practical skills and knowledge, I want to bring to your attention a report on the construction of the simplest classic carport attached to the house.
What are we going to build?
The design was chosen as standard for this type of canopy. It's just a roof truss system on supports. The dimensions of the canopy in the plan are 1.8x6 m, the height to the roof is 2.4 m. On the one hand, metal pillars (4 pieces along the facade) are used as a supporting element, on the other - a board bolted to the wall of the house. Roof covering - Ondura sheets (analogue of Ondulin, with large sheet sizes). Between the pillars, it is planned to install trellises for grapes so that you can sit in the shade under a canopy, enjoying nature and fresh air, even in the midday heat.
So, I'll start with a story about how this idea was implemented. I hope I can describe the whole process in an accessible way.
Step # 1 - installing metal pillars
I started by installing metal pillars, that is, vertical canopy posts, on which the roof rafter system will be held. There are only 4 of them, they run along the facade, at a distance of 1.8 m from the wall. According to the plan, the length of the canopy is 6 m (along the entire length of the facade of the house), so the step of the racks is 1.8 m (taking into account the roof outlets on both sides of the racks).
For the racks, 4 steel pipes 60x60x3 mm of square section 3.9 m long were purchased. They will be buried 1.5 m into the ground (below the freezing level), 2.4 m will remain on top. This will be the height of the canopy.
First, I marked out the places for the installation of the posts with pegs - strictly at a distance of 1.8 m from the wall. He measured everything, calculated the contours. Then he took a drill with a 150 mm nozzle and drilled 4 holes 1.5 m deep.
According to the planned program, a concrete pile foundation will be poured under the posts. This is done in the following way: each post is installed in a pit into which concrete is poured. The result is reinforced piles that hold the posts.
It is undesirable to pour concrete directly into the drilled holes. It is necessary to make insulation, which at the same time performs the function of formwork. To do this, I decided to use roofing felt sleeves - pieces of roofing material twisted in the form of a cylinder. The length of the sleeves should be such that the concrete piles protrude 10 cm above the ground. For a pit 1.5 m deep, at the bottom of which a sand cushion of 10 cm will be poured, 1.5 m sleeves are required. The diameter of the sleeves is 140 mm.
I cut pieces of roofing material, rolled them into sleeves and fastened with tape (you can use a stapler). Next, a 10 cm layer of sand was poured onto the bottom of each pit and a sleeve was inserted there. The concrete formwork is ready.
Metal racks were installed in the sleeves. First, there were two extreme ones, I aligned them vertically and in height (2.4 m), pulled a cord between them and already set two intermediate pillars along it. Then he poured concrete into the sleeves (from the finished mixture, only added water and that's it - it's very convenient).
Concrete, poured into roofing felt sleeves, holds metal racks
I cut pieces of roofing material, rolled them into sleeves and fastened with tape (you can use a stapler). Then he poured concrete into the sleeves (from the finished mixture, only added water and that's it - it's very convenient).
Racks exposed along a stretched cord
I took 3 days to set and cure the concrete. During this time, it is not advisable to load the racks, so I started preparing wooden parts - support boards and rafters.
The material on how to build a terrace will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/postroiki/terrasa-na-dache-svoimi-rukami.html
Step # 2 - make the roof
The roof structure has 2 support boards on which the rafters and the entire roof structure will be held. One of the boards is mounted on the wall, the other - on the pillars. On top of the support boards, in the transverse direction, rafters are laid.
The boards were taken with a section of 150x50 mm, 6 m long. Since the canopy was originally planned as a solid, but inexpensive structure, I bought non-planed boards. I sharpened and sanded them myself, which took some time. But he was sure of the result, smoothed the surface to the highest class.
The rafters will be laid in the grooves of the support boards. Another headache - you need to cut the grooves, and at an angle of inclination of the rafters. To determine the angle and location of the cut-in, we had to perform a trial installation of the boards. I screwed such a board to the wall with wood grouses 140x8 mm, to metal racks - with 8 mm hairpin pieces using washers and nuts.
Fastening support boards to racks and walls
Now that the support boards are in place, a bevel was used, with the help of which I determined the angle of inclination of the rafters. After that, the boards were removed and in them, taking into account the known angle, the grooves for the rafters were cut out.
The rafters are also made of boards 150x50 mm, 2 m long. There were 7 rafters in total. Their installation step on support boards is 1 m.
After adjusting the rafters to the grooves, all parts were painted over with Holz Lazur JOBI teak-colored glazing compound.
Then everything was mounted. Support boards - as during preliminary fastening, that is, with the help of wood grouses and studs. The rafters were placed on top, in the grooves of the boards and hammered in with nails. For each groove it took 2 nails, hammered through the rafters obliquely, towards each other.
Installation of rafters in the grooves of the support boards
Planks 100x25 mm, 6 m long - 7 pieces were used for the crate for Ondura. I screwed them across the rafters with self-tapping screws.
Formation of lathing for flexible roofing sheets
Sheets of Ondura are laid on the crate and nailed with brushed nails with plastic caps matching the color of the flooring. In fact, the roof is already ready, now you can not worry about the rain and equip the place under a canopy. For example, bring a garden table and chairs there.
You can also make a polycarbonate canopy, read about it: https://diz-cafe.com/postroiki/naves-iz-polikarbonata-svoimi-rukami.html
Canopy covered with sheets of Euro-slate Ondura
The ends of the rafters remained open, which is not very good in terms of decorativeness. And there was nowhere to fix the drain. Therefore, to complete the roof, I screwed a frontal board to the ends of the rafters - a lining, 6 m long.
The frontal board overlaps the ends of the rafters and provides support for the gutter
The next step is to fasten the drain. On the frontal board, there are two gutters, 3 m each. The drain from the roof goes into an irrigation pipe, through which the grapes will be irrigated.
Step # 3 - pouring the foundation under the mini-wall
To prevent water from getting under the canopy during the rain, I decided to make a low retaining wall of brick between the racks. It needs a strip foundation, which I made using standard technology. I dug a trench between the supports on a shovel bayonet and set the formwork out of the boards. At the bottom of the trench, he poured a sand cushion of 10 cm. And already on it, he put 2 reinforcement bars on supports for fastening (reinforcing) the foundation.
I was afraid to do without reinforcement, you never know, maybe it will crack and fall apart. Then he mixed the concrete and poured it into the trench. It was necessary to wait for the concrete to set and harden, so I decided to return to the support wall later. And now - start decorating your building.
Step # 4 - installing pillars and trellises
It's time to take a critical look at the canopy. The metal canopy racks were a little out of the general composition. I decided to decorate and refine them by sewing them up with wooden overlays. Just for this, I have a few 100x25 mm boards left. I fixed them on top of the metal posts using pieces of M8 studs, washers and nuts. There was a space between the overlays (from the side of the trellis installation), where I inserted a 45x20 mm rail. The slats have formed projections, on which the horizontal elements of the trellis will be fixed.
Wooden pads are attached to metal racks
The time has come for fixing the tapestries. I chose a lattice pattern for them with a carved hole in the center. This hole allowed me to use not only long strips for the trellis, but also trimming. We can say that it turned out to be a waste-free production. And such a drawing looks more interesting than the standard monotonous squares.
The slats for the trellises were made by longitudinal dissolution of the boards I had 100x25mm. The board was dismantled into three parts, the resulting slats were sanded. The final section of the slats (after grinding) is 30x20 mm.
I made the tapestries without a frame, the slats are fixed only on the vertical ledges of the posts. At first, I exposed horizontal slats, screwing them to the protrusions with self-tapping screws. Then, on top of them, I fixed vertical slats. The result was a decorative lattice, near which the wife planted grapes. Now it is already winding with might and main along the trellis and has almost blocked the wall of the structure. The shade protects from the midday heat. This is very handy, since the canopy is located on the south side of the house and without a canopy it was almost impossible to rest here during the day because of the abnormal heat.
The material on how to attach a veranda to the house will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/postroiki/kak-pristroit-verandu-k-dachnomu-domu.html
Tapestries are collected from rails directly "on the spot"
Tapestries cover the front part of the canopy
Step # 5 - building a retaining wall
The last stage is the construction of a retaining wall. The strip foundation for it has already frozen, you can start working. For waterproofing, I glued 2 layers of roofing material to the foundation tape, smearing each layer with mastic. From above, on roofing material, I built a retaining wall, 3 bricks high, at the level.
Retaining wall will not allow rain drops and water during irrigation to fall on the site under the canopy
Now there will be less dirt when watering and raining. And the canopy looks so much nicer.
Vineyard canopy with trellis
That's probably all. The canopy was built. The whole project was implemented by me alone, but I did not notice any difficulties in the process. Subsequently, the area under the awning was covered with paving slabs. We can say that I ended up with a covered terrace or an open gazebo - call it whatever you like. Although by design, this is an ordinary canopy on poles, the construction of which took very little time.
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